- It used to be that the number of different microcontroller chips available to the hobbyist was pretty limited. You got to use whatever you could manage to buy from the mail-order chip dealer, and that narrowed down the choice to a small number of chips.
But times have changed. Digikey lists over 16000 different line items under a 'microcontroller' search. Which one should a hobbyist with no particular prior experience choose?
Here are some hints. These are particularly aimed at someone trying to pick a microcontroller to use for the first time at least partially as a learning experience, rather than someone who wants to accomplish a particular task.
Update 2009-01-28: This Instructable was recently mentioned in some popular blogs, and is getting a bunch of new readers. Be sure to read the 'comments' made by other readers and the responses to them; there's a lot of value in those comments...
What IS a "Microcontroller" ?
- If you ever took a very introductory computer course, you probably learned about the major components of ANY computer:
A Central Processing Unit or CPU. The part that actually performs logic and math
Memory. Where the computer stores data and instructions
Input and Output or I/O. How the computer moves data between its other components and the real world.
A microprocessor uses microelectronic fabrication techniques to shrink the CPU to a very small size; usually a single "chip."
A microcontroller uses the same techniques to shrink the entire computer to a single chip (or very small module.) CPU, Memory, and I/O all in a little package as small as a grain of rice. Just connect up power and it starts doing its thing; computing and talking to the world. Usually the I/O on a microcontroller is aimed at "low level" hardware like talking to individual switches snaileye and LEDs instead of keyboards, internets, and displays (like your desktop computer.) A microcontroller is just the thing you want, if you want to talk to individual switches and LEDs...
- There are a number design considerations that might immediately reduce your number of choices a great deal.
Programability and Reprogramability:
At this point in time, I would say that a hobbyist should only consider microcontrollers that have internal flash or eeprom program memory and can be erased and reprogrammed a substantial number of times. There are also micros that can be used with external memory (adds complexity and expense), UV erasable micros (usually quite expensive due to the special packaging), one-time programmable chips (potentially usable after you have a working design, but losing their price advantage anyway), and mask-programmed chips (essentially useless.)
If you want your microcontroller to have built in Ethernet, CAN, USB, or even multiple serial ports, many common choices are going to be eliminated. Some peripherals can be handy to have: UARTs, SPI or I2C controllers, PWM controllers, and EEPROM data memory are good examples, even though similar functionality can frequently be implemnented in software or external parts.
It's convenient if output pins can supply reasonable amounts of current for driving LEDs or transistors directly; some chips have 5mA or less drive capability.
Hobbyists are somewhat limited is the packages they are able to deal with, from a prototyping, PCB fabrication, and/or soldering. That 256 ball BGA coldfire CPU may be sweet, but it's effectively unusable by mere mortals. Microcontrollers available in 0.1in DIP packages are much easier to deal with. Probably anything with a pin spacing smaller than 0.05in should be viewed with some skepticism.
The size of memory may be an important consideration. Some micros have as few as 256 innstructions and 16 bytes of RAM. You can do a lot in that sort of space (believe it or not), but not everything. Moreover, while you can frequently upgrade to a "bigger chip", some chip families have relatively small memory limits imposed by their architecture, so even the biggest chip you can get will have only 8k instructions (for example.) RAM (data memory) is usually scarce in microcontrollers; some algorithms require substantial RAM to be implemented in a straightforward manner, and it may be worthwhile looking for a micro with a lot of RAM (or external RAM expansion capabilities) if that's the sort of thing you had in mind. (For instance, implementing TCP/IP networking protocols in a micro whose total RAM space is less than used by a typical ethernet packet is likely to be ... interesting.)
Thoughts about Architectures
MemoryCPU pieces CPU pieces More CPU pieces Input/Output things Input/Output thingsMore memory The "architecture" of a microcontroller refers to the philosophy of the internal implementation, sort of. It includes details like how many "registers" there are, and how "general purpose" those registers are, whether code can execute out of data memory, whether the peripherals are treated like memory, registers, or yet something else, whether there is a stack and how it works, and so on.
You will hear people talk about how some architectures are better than others. I suppose this is true. But I'm going to claim that it is largely irrelevant for the typical hobbyist. If you wish to avoid the architectural quirks of a particular family of microcontrollers, you can use a high level language. If you're willing to program in assembler, you're at a level of interest where learning and overcoming the quirks is party of the stuff you should be learning. Besides, we're not talking here about evaluating some new architecture that some company is proposing. All of the chips I mention in this instructable have been around long enough that they've proven that their architectures are good enough for MANY real applications.
Here are some architectural "features" you may read about and some explanation of what they mean.
CISC/RISC. Complex Instruction Set Computer. Reduced Instruction Set Computer.
In the old days, CPU designers were getting clever and wanted their CPUs to support high-level language features in hardware, leading to cobol-like string manipulation instructions that accepted arguments in blocks of 8 registers. IIRC, it was Berkeley and IBM who noticed that compiler writers didn't really know how to USE such complicated instructions from a compiler, the amount of silicon real estate used by these instructions was getting large, and in fact the hardware implementation sometimes wasn't as fast as doing the same thing in software anyway. So they said "I bet we can make the CPU go a lot faster if we leave out these complex instructions and dedicate the silicon to more registers or cache memory or something", and thereby invented the RISC CPU. Nowadays "RISC" is widely used by marketing departments to mean "we don't have very many instructions", even if the rest of the architecture isn't very much like the original RISC researchers had envisioned.
In a Harvard architecture, the instruction memory and the data memory are separate, controlled by different buses, and sometimes have different sizes. For microcontrollers, the instructions are usually stored in "read only" memory, and data is in RAM or registers. An example is the
PIC microcontroller, where instructions are in 12, 14, or 16 bit wide flash, and data is in 8bit
Von Neuman Architecture.
In a von Neuman Architecture, data and instructions share memory space, so you could do things like dynamic compilation to generate instructions in RAM and then execute them. The TI MSP430 is an example of a von Neuman architecture.
In an "accumulator based" architecture, there is usually one "special" register where most of the actual computation (math, logic, etc) occurs. Some effort has to be spent to get operands into the accumulator and results back out to where you need them. The opposite is a processor with "general purpose" registers, where any of several registers can be used for math/etc.
A load/store architecture typically means that operands to ALU operations have to be in registers, so that you have to load them from memory beforehand and store them back when operations are complete. The opposite typically allows operations between a register or
accumulator and a memory location directly. RISC architectures tend to be load/store, since a lot or the CISCness of CISC processors shows up in implementing complex "addressing modes" for accessing the memory operands. In a RISC architecture, all that complexity only has to be implemented in the load and store instructions (if at all.)
Memory Mapped I/O
Thoughts about Hardware Tools
Minimally, you'll need some sort of programmer to load the program into the microcontroller.
These vary wildly in cost. It's pretty common for manufacturers to offer some low-cost programmer so that people can "evaluate" their microcontrollers without risking too much cash (or requiring director level approval :-) "low cost" used to mean "less than $500" (which happens to be a common "expensable" limit), but the number has been going down. I think you can find manufacturer supplied development tools for most of the microcontrollers mentioned here for
$50 or less.
Cheaper tools can be bought from third parties, or built yourself. If you don't mind the possibility that bugs in your tools might cause more problems than bugs in your code.
Maximally, production gang programmers, In circuit emulators, logic analyzers, oscilloscopes, lab-bench power supplies... You can spend as much money as you've got, probably.
Thoughts about Software Tools
- All of the microcontrollers mentioned here have some level of standard tools (at least an assembler) provided by the manufacturer. Most have "Integrated Development Environments" (IDE) that allow integrated use of an editor (that you won't like) with the assembler, some compilers, and a simulator (of perhaps limited value.) Some have significant additional support from the open source movement.
Tools from manufacturers aren't always great, but you appreciate them more after you've tried to use a microcontroller that doesn't have any such tools available...
The $100 Paradox
If your budget extends as far as $100 for the computing hardware, it's worth noting that you
have bought your way into an interesting realm of "bang for buck."
"About" $100 will buy:
- Relatively fancy development board for most micros; covering a wide range of processors and performances (including PC compatibles, for instance.)
- brand new Low end palmtop (ie Palm Z22)
- used last-generation desktop system (go two generations old and you can probably get a display too.)
It WON'T buy much in the way of custom development, if you're paying for it.
Now a palmtop makes a lousy motor controller. But if you "need" the color display and touchscreen, it might be easier (and cheaper maker together club) to add motor control electronics to a palmtop than it is to add a display to a bare microcontroller. Especially since the palmtop comes with a development environment for making the display DO things...
Microchip PIC Microcontrollers
The Microchip PIC microcontrollers were perhaps the first that were marketed to the hobbyist and student community, one of the first microcontrollers to be offered in a relatively small package (18 pin DIP) and one of the first to implement flash or eeprom program memory recovery(in the PIC16C84 in 1993)
Architecture: harvard, accumulator based (mostly)
Package sizes: 6, 8, 14, 18, 20, 28, 40, ... 100
Program memory size: 256 words (12bit words = one instruction) to 256k bytes (2 bytes=1 instruction)
Data RAM: 16 to ~3900 bytes (4096 byte address space, shared with peripheral registers.)
Special features: EEPROM, 20mA output drive, several "sub-architectures"
Flash memory based PIC microcontrollers curently range from vanishingly small 6-pin chips in SOT23 packages to 100pin TQFPs. The basic architecture has been extended to chips with 16bit ALUs and integral DSP functionality.
Microchip has a liberal sample policy and chips are widely available from many vendors.
Resources for Microchip PIC
There are a bunch of existing Instructables that use use Microchip PICs:
Intro to PIC Microcontrollers
PIC micro Timer Code
Business Card PIC Programmer
Buildng the Inchworm ICD2 PIC Programmer / Debugger
Other PIC Instructables
...Collaborators feel free to extend this page here...
- As near as I can tell, Atmel came along and decided to steal some of Microchip's business by offering "similar but better" chips. Some things they did right, some things they didn't do so well. But the Atmel AVR chips have also gained a lot of popularity among hobbyists, and we get to cash in on the sometimes-war between Atmel and Microchip. My subjective observation is that microchip seems to do low-end chips a bit better, and Atmel does high-end chips a bit better.
Architecture: harvard, GP register based (mostly)
Package sizes: 8, 14, 20, 28, 40, ... 100
Program memory size: 1k byte to 256k bytes (2 bytes=1 instruction)
Data RAM: 32 to 8k+32 (32 bytes of gp registers, 0 to 8k of RAM)
Special features: EEPROM, 20mA output drive
- Atmel the Manufacturer
- AVR Freaks Despite the amateurish name, this is a REALLY good site.
- PIC vs. AVR smackdown A comparison between PIC and AVR
- AVR Butterfly The AVR "Butterfly" evaluation board is a phenomenal value at the current price of $20.
- Another Butterfly vendor
GCC supports all but the smallest AVRs; giving you a C compiler of substantial quality for free.
- GCC and WinAVR
- Arduino is a sort of combination of some standardized hardware based on the ATmega8 or ATmega168 and a simplified development environment that hides some of the complexities of using gcc for AVRs. See also under "modules."
Product guides/comparison charts:
Instructables using Atmel AVRs:
Getting started with AVR microprocessors on the cheap
Other AVR Instructables
...Collaborators feel free to add additional information here...
Intel 8051 and variants
Intel invented the 8051 architecture a long time ago, and garnered some hobbyist interest with the 8052BASIC chip, which contained a basic interpretter in masked ROM and allowed one to build a very small BASIC based computer. Since then the architecture has been licensed and/or stolen by MANY vendors, and good things have happened to it. It's been shrunk, expanded, speeded up, made lower power, had peripherals added, increased memory, flash and eeprom (and even ferromagnetic ram) added. Most variants are somewhat harder to find than PIC or AVR chips.
- 8052.com site Massive amounts of info.
- Atmel 8051s Atmel does 8051s as well as AVR and ARM
- NXP (Philips) 8051 89LPC controllers.
- RAMTron micros 8051s with FRAM non-volatile memory
- Silicon Labs Neat 8051s including high performance ADCs. Also the smallest 8051; 11pins in a 3x3mm QFN. Cheap USB "toolstick" eval platforms.
...add more here
Freescale (Motorola) 68HC908, HCS08
Motorola (well, now Freescale) has several lines of popular microcontrollers, the most accessible of which seems to be the flash-based 68HC908 and/or HCS08 or RS08 (all the same or very similar architectures, with some renaming and assorted minor differences) series. Traditionally, Motorola chips have been very difficult to obtain through low-volume channels (ie to the hobbyist) and Mot hasn't been very good about distinguishing chips you can actually buy vs chips that are so targetted to a particular industry segment that they're essentially unobtainium. But they seem to be catching on. Many can be bought at Digikey, and low-cost development systems are pretty common.
The Freescale xx08 microcontrollers are one of the few microcontrollers with a genuine von Neuman architecture. Peripherals, Flash, and RAM all share the same 64k address space.
Texas Instrument MSP430 micropower Microcontrollers
Texas Instruments garnered some interest when they introduced (bought?) their MSP430 series of extemely low-power microcontrollers. Until recently, most of the MSP430s were only available in assorted hobbyist-unfriendly SMT packages, but a couple of recent chips have been introduced in DIP packages. And there's a low cost USB-development dongle that offers better than the usual functionality for such things, so maybe things are looking up.
The MSP430 is one of the few natively 16-bit architetcures in the microcontroller world.
ARM is a company that designs microprocessor architetcures, and licenses them to manufacturers who build actual chips. The ARM is a 32bit true RISC architecture silicon wafer substrate transistor sem fib modification, and scales upwards to CPUs with floating point hardware and clocks speeds of several hundred MHz. If you have a palmtop, it probably contains an ARM-based chip. Your cellphone probably has an ARM based chip.
Recently, some of the manufacturers of ARM architecture chips have started offering combinations of on-chip memory and peripherals, and price, that put them into the same marketplace with 8 and 16bit microcontrollers. If you're likely to need lots of memory and performance, it may be worth looking at ARM chips. Or maybe even if you're NOT. As a professional, the possibility of having a single architecture that spans from 28pin microcontrollers to 400MHz router CPUs is attractive in many ways.
Currently, I'm finding that the breadth of the ARM space seems to generate some confusion. Putting together a tool set and development environment for a particular ARM chip can be challenging.
Modules, bootloaders, and "hidden" microcontrollers
- A number of companies have made a business of selling "modules" , usually incorporating some sort of microcontroller and some of its support components with a high-level-lanaguge development environment, some sort of chip-programming capability, and communications. This gets rid of the need for any special hardware tools (usually just a cable to your PC), provides the HLL, and in general lets you get started much faster than the "pure" microcontroller route. The main disadvantage would be price ($30 for a basic stamp vs $5 for a chip with similar capability) and (sometimes) performance (the basic stamp uses interpreted basic, which is very slow compared to native code.)
Parallax: home of the Basic Stamp
SunSpot Java thing
Modules/IDEs with ethernet/etc
Arduino: open source hardware and IDE for Atmel AVR
Another disadvantage is WRT the education aspect. You won't learn much about "microcontrollers" by programming a module in a HLL that hides ALL the microcontroller details.
Zilog Z8 and Z80 chips
- Zilog (inventor of the famous Z80 microprocessor chip) has updated versions of the Z80 in microcontroller form, and also updated versions of the even older Z8 architecture. Both have flash memory and some interesting peripherals , and inexpensive "evaluation boards" that include a C compiler. At one time, the zilog evaluation boards were quite "full" compared to many low cost evaluation boards, but the current versions seem less so. (My EZ8kit has 4 5x7 matrix displays, an IRDA transceiver, two rs232 async ports, an rs485 port, and assorted buttons and lights. IIRC, it was $50 (special deal at a trade show.))
Fritzk9 said in comments:
Most of the people who have commented list the PIC, PICAxe, ARM, 8052, or Basic Stamps. These are all popular chips, but if you are just getting started with microcontrollers, you might want to start with something fairly cheap. How does $40 sound?
That's what the Zilog Z8 Encore! 8-bit microcontroller development kit costs. The Z8 Encore! microcontrollers are available with 1K to 64K of flash RAM. For speed, they operate at 5- to 20-MHz, and depending on the chip, they are available in various packages from 8 to 80 pins. The $39.95 development kit contains a development board with input/output pins, a wall wart power supply, computer cable (USB or serial to connect your computer to the development board), and a free C compiler and assembler that runs under Windows. You don't need to buy or build a programmer, since you can program the chip right in the circuit you've built -- without having to remove it and reprogram it in a programmer.
All the Encore! chips can communicate serially through a UART (some have 2 UARTs). Some have analog-to-digital converters built-in, and some have an infra-red (IRDA) communications port. Oh, and there are up to 4 built-in timers on the chip, depending on the chip version. The price of an Encore! microcontroller is pretty reasonable, given all the capabilities (anywhere from $3 to $13 each from Digi-Key).
The C compiler is excellent. The Zilog C compiler has most of the capabilities of "big boy" compilers, like a floating point library, trig functions, etc. It produces better assembly code than I can, so I use it almost exclusively.
Remember that almost any non-trivial code you write will have bugs. The debugger supplied with the development kit permits you to step through your code and look at the results of variables stored in the various registers to help you locate your mistakes.
Digi-Key stocks two different Encore! development kits (either one costs $39.95); one for 8K/4K chips, and the other for 16K through 64K chips. The Digi-Key part number for the 8K/4K development kit is 269-3183-ND, and the part number for the 64K development kit is 2693249-ND. http://www.digikey.com
Zilog's website has a large number of sample applications, full documentation of their microcontrollers, and free updates to the C compiler supplied with the development kit.
I'd say that the only downside is that the Z8 Encore! isn't as popular as the PIC as a hobbyist chip, so there haven't been any books or many of projects published for it except for some articles in Circuit Cellar magazine. Oh, and if you are interested in microcontrollers, Circuit Cellar and Nuts & Volts magazines are two that cover the subject. Both are available at Barnes & Noble bookstores -- maybe Borders too. Or, just go directly to their websites:
Circuit Cellar Magazine
Nuts & Volts Magazine
Win Valuable Prizes
- Periodically, many of the manufacturers of microcontrollers will sponsor "Design Contests" where engineers all over will be challenged to come up with a particularly clever design using a particular microcontroller. The idea is to entice engineers into looking at THEIR chips even if they're already using some other microcontroller. At any given time of year, there's likely to be at least one contest "in progress." There are a number of good things about these contests:
I've talked to reps at trade shows; the final number of entrants to these contests tends to be pretty small, so as contests go your chances of winning (if you complete an entry) are unusually high.
- PRIZES. Some of the contests have significant cash prizes. $5-10k, which is not to be sneezed at.
- Winning even a minor prize (or being published IC- FIB sem laboratory) will look good on your resume.
- Frequently the contests are accompanied by "special offers" in the form of low cost development tools or free samples.
- A contest may generate at least temporary interest and discussion on some processor of interest.
- The end of the contest usually includes publishing some or all of the entered designs, serving as useful examples for everyone else.
Usually there is nothing in the rules that prevents the entry from also being (say) your college senior design project. Alas, many contests are restricted to people over 18, and completing an entry in the timeframe usually allowed is not so easy as it sounds before you've tried it.
Freescale Low-end x08 "Black Widow" Contest half-price development kit on completion of 2 parts of the 4-part contest. $10k+ prize.
PICList Free PCB Contest Free olimex-fabbed PCB for your design. Small prize, small contest; runs every month! Must be PIC or SX based.
General reference for a lot of contests (includes past winners, etc.):
Circuit Cellar Magazine Contest Page
I entered Freescale's recent "Black Widow" contest for designs based on their very small 8-bit microcontrollers, which had a top prize of $10000 cash plus a trip to their design conference (and $1000 for each of 10 finalists to aid in completing a prototype.) I didn't make the finals :-(
However, I netted a T-shirt, a coupon good for $15 off a (low cost) development system, and oneof some ROOMBA robot vacuum cleaners raffled off to "early entrants." And I learned some stuff, too. That's not a bad haul. The contest apparently had 775 participants at the final phase...
Try it Online: Virtual Labs
芯片解密 is a pretty good website for technical News in general, and they've apparently implemented something they call 芯片解密 that will allow you to try out a vendor's development system over the internet with nothing but a browser on your end. I used this for the first time as part of the Freescale "Black Widow Design Contest", since one of the required steps was to get the virtual development board to behave in a certain way. It was pretty neat. But it wasn't entirely bug-free, so be a bit careful.
They have several Freescale, Luminary, Renesas, and TI development systems available.
Free Stuff! In the old days, companies would mail datasheets and databooks to just about anyone who asked. The web has done away with the need for most of that, and many vendors seem to have taken the money they saved on postage and used it to make their sample program more accessible.
The way "free samples" work is that the manufacturer will happily send you several samples of a part, in the hopes that you'll try them out and be so impressed that you'll used them in a project that nets them sales of millions of units. Or (if you're a student) that they'll win some loyalty and "mindshare" when you get out into the real world and be more likely to use their microcontrollers than someone else's. Or that you'll write some magazine or web article that will call attention to their products. It's a marketing expense, and it's probably cheaper than many marketing expenses...
Microchip, Freescale, and TI all have very liberal sample policies. Look up a part on their website, and it's likely to have a "sample" button somewhere on the page; send them some info and in a week or so you're likely to have chips in hand. Other vendors are harder; you may have to talk to a representative. Vendors have a weak spot (as they should) for students; you might think that a sample request from a "my-u.edu" email address carries less weight than one from "nonexistantcompany.com", but that's not necessarilly true.
Ethics of Free Sampling
I suppose there are ethics to requesting free samples. Here are some of my personal rules:
1) NEVER resell samples. I see lots of eBay listings for chips in quantities that match the max sample quantities of some vendors. It pisses me off. (Of course, this COULD be another "sample channel" officially endorsed by the vendor. But it doesn't look that way.)
2) Don't lie more than necessary. I think making up a company name is fine, but inventing 10000 fellow employees and a product that will sell 10k/year of a chip is over the line. (This has been especially interesting as I've transitions from student to engineer at unknown company to engineer at extemely well-known company. These days If I ask for a sample, I'm likely to get a phone call from an enthusiastic salesperson hoping for a win in our next big product, and I usually explain that no, the best they can hope for from me is to get inserted into some odd piece of custom lab gear.)
3) Don't be greedy. Some vendors limit you to so many samples per month, or per order. That doesn't mean you should submit new sample orders every month, or order the maximum number of samples allowed. (OTOH, be aware that for many of the chips we're talking about, the order processing and shipping costs more than the chips themselves...)
4) Spread Good Publicity. If you pubish a project that used a sample, be sure to say nice things about their product. If you can't find something nice to say about a chip you sampled, you probably shouldn't say anything at all. ("Don't look a gift horse in the mouth"?)
- Mikatech Atmel printer mcu reverse engineer list:
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- ATTinyxx whole series microcontroller firmware crack: ATtiny4 ATtiny5 ATtiny10 ATtiny11 ATtiny12 ATtiny13 ATtiny15 ATtiny20 ATtiny22 ATtiny24 ATtiny25 ATtiny26 ATtiny261 ATtiny28 ATtiny2313 ATtiny40 ATtiny4313 ATtiny43 ATtiny44 ATtiny45 ATtiny461 ATtiny48 ATtiny84 ATtiny85 ATtiny861 ATtiny87 ATtiny88 ATtiny4A ATtiny5A ATtiny10A ATtiny11A ATtiny12A ATtiny13A ATtiny15A ATtiny20A ATtiny22A ATtiny24A ATtiny25A ATtiny26A ATtiny261A ATtiny28A ATtiny2313A ATtiny40A ATtiny4313A ATtiny43A ATtiny44A ATtiny45A ATtiny461A ATtiny48A ATtiny84A ATtiny85A ATtiny861A ATtiny87A ATtiny88A ATtiny4V ATtiny5V ATtiny10V ATtiny11V ATtiny12V ATtiny13V ATtiny15V ATtiny20V ATtiny22V ATtiny24V ATtiny25V ATtiny26V ATtiny261V ATtiny28V ATtiny2313V ATtiny40V ATtiny4313V ATtiny43V ATtiny44V ATtiny45V ATtiny461V ATtiny48V ATtiny84V ATtiny85V ATtiny861V ATtiny87V ATtiny88V ...
- ATMegaxx whole series microcontroller crack: ATmega16 ATmega162 ATmega164 ATmega165 ATmega168 ATmega169 ATmega128 ATmega1280 ATmega1281 ATmega2560 ATmega2561 ATmega328 ATmega48 ATmega32 ATmega324 ATmega325 ATmega3250 ATmega329 ATmega3290 ATmega64 ATmega640 ATmega645 ATmega6450 ATmega649 ATmega6490 ATmega8 ATmega88 ATmega8515 ATmega8535 ATmega16L ATmega162L ATmega164L ATmega165L ATmega168L ATmega169L ATmega128L ATmega1280L ATmega1281L ATmega2560L ATmega2561L ATmega328L ATmega48L ATmega32L ATmega324L ATmega325L ATmega3250L ATmega329L ATmega3290L ATmega64L ATmega640L ATmega645L ATmega6450L ATmega649L ATmega6490L ATmega8L ATmega88L ATmega8515L ATmega8535L ATmega16P ATmega162P ATmega164P ATmega165P ATmega168P ATmega169P ATmega128P ATmega1280P ATmega1281P ATmega2560P ATmega2561P ATmega328P ATmega48P ATmega32P ATmega324P ATmega325P ATmega3250P ATmega329P ATmega3290P ATmega64P ATmega640P ATmega645P ATmega6450P ATmega649P ATmega6490P ATmega8P ATmega88P ATmega16A ATmega162A ATmega164A ATmega165A ATmega168A ATmega169A ATmega128A ATmega1280A ATmega1281A ATmega2560A ATmega2561A ATmega328A ATmega48A ATmega32A ATmega324A ATmega325A ATmega3250A ATmega329A ATmega3290A ATmega64A ATmega640A ATmega645A ATmega6450A ATmega649A ATmega6490A ATmega8A ATmega88A ATmega8515A ATmega8535A ...
- ATFxx series microcontroller crack: ATF16V8B ATF16V8BL ATF16V8BQ ATF16V8BQL ATF16LV8C ATF16LV8CEXT ATF16V8C ATF16V8CEXT ATF16V8CZ ATF20V8B ATF20V8BL ATF20V8BQ ATF20V8BQL ATF22LV10C ATF22LV10CEXT ATF22LV10CUES ATF22LV10CZ ATF22LV10CQZ ATV22V10 ATF22V10B ATF22V10BQ ATF22V10BL ATF22V10BQL ATF22V10C ATF22V10CEXT ATF22V10CUES ATF22V10CZ ATF22V10CQZ ATF22V10CZUES ATF22V10CQZUES ATF1500A ATF1500ABV ATF1500ABVL ATF1500 ATF1500L ATF1502AS ATF1502ASL ATF1502ASV ATF1502ASVL ATF1504AS ATF1504ASVL ATF1508 ATF1508AS ATF1508ASV ATF2500C ATF2500CL ATF2500CQ ATF2500CQL ATF750C ATF750CEXT ATF750CL ATF750LVC ATF750LVCCEXT ATF750LVCEXT ATF750LVCL ATV2500 ATV2500H ATV2500L ATV2500B ATV2500BL ATV2500BQL ATV5000 ATV5000L ATV750 ATV750B ATV750BL ATV750L ...
- AT88scxx/90scxx series microcontroller crack: AT88SC0104 AT88SC0104C AT88SC0204 AT88SC0204C AT88SC0404 AT88SC0404C AT88SC0808 AT88SC0808C AT88SC1003 AT88SC101 AT88SC102 AT88SC1281 AT88SC12816C AT88SC150 AT88SC153 ...